Reasons to Study TKD

Fear ParalyzesEdit

When you are afraid, you do not always do the things you want to do. Fear causes undue stress in your life and your family. Fear is passed on to children so they learn to grow up in fear. Taekwondo helps you alleviate and control many of your fears.


There Is Violence In The WorldEdit

There are bad people in the world who have no morals or conscious so they will not hesitate to harm or kill you. Some think that putting evil people behind bars for a lifetime is punishment enough because the wrongdoers have to think about what they have done for everyday for the rest of their lives. This is the wishful thinking of people with a conscious. Evil people do not dwell on their crimes because they do not have a conscious. They may not enjoy prison, but they do not regret their actions. If released, they will do the same things again. You must learn to defend yourself against these bad people.

You cannot rely on the “Good Guys” to protect you from the “Bad Guys"Edit

For one thing, the good guys are not always around and, if they are, you cannot be sure they will

help. Also, you never know who they good guys are. Taekwondo will teach you how to defend yourself when the need arises; the one person you may count on. When you are in need, YOU are the only one that is always there,

and that who is ready and willing to help no matter how great the danger.

You can do itEdit

No matter who you are, there are things you may do to defend yourself effectively. Defense is usually always better than submission.

Nothing else mattersEdit

When you're facing an evil person who is intending on harming you, nothing else matters except you preventing the person from harming you.

His bad childhood, the lack of school funding, liberal judges, corrupt police departments, your efforts in the peace movement, your being a good person, etc. mean nothing at that moment. Taekwondo teaches you what you need to do; whether you do it is up to you.

To be preparedEdit

You carry a cell phone, keep your AAA membership current, and keep a jack and spare tire in your trunk when you drive so you will be prepared for possible problems. Why not be prepared for an attack? Taekwondo will prepare you.

It is instinctiveEdit

All animals know how to defend themselves because their lives depend on it. Parents in the animal world do not release their offspring until they have developed self-defense skills effective enough for them to survive. Why do humans neglect their children in this respect? Taekwondo will teach your children how to defend themselves in today's world.


To be truly confident in yourself, you must be feel confident in your ability to protect yourself and your family. Taekwondo will give you this confidence.


When you fail to protect your family or friends, or even a stranger, you will live a lifetime of guilt because you did not do all you could have done to protect them. With Taekwondo training, you will be more willing to intercede when needed.

It is funEdit

It is fun to kick butt; that is why sports are so successful. Taekwondo lets you exercise your competitiveness in a safe, controlled manner.

Win, never loseEdit

We are taught that winning is not everything; it is how we play the game. In the world of crime, if you do not win, you will never play again. Taekwondo teaches you how to win, and how to deal with defeat.

Human bodies evolved to surviveEdit

We have the innate desire to kick butt when threatened, and kicking butt makes us feel better afterward. Taekwondo teaches you street survival skills.


In today's society where intimidation is prominent, starting on the playground and continuing into the workplace, being a wuss may get you injured or even killed, at the most, and left behind in the world of success at the least. Taekwondo do shows you how to deal with intimidation, usually without violence.

Criminals are ready and willing to harm youEdit

Are you ready and willing to stop them? Taekwondo will prepare you for criminal attacks.

Philosophy of TKD

When we learn philosophy from a book, we tend to forget it quickly because it is not related to our actual lives. However, since Taekwondo is connected with every physical movement of our lives, we may never forget its philosophy. Since we experience life through the movements of daily living and we experience Taekwondo through its movements, we begin to understand the philosophy of Taekwondo by practicing Taekwondo and relating it to our daily movements.

Taekwondo is not just training in kicking, punching, and self-defense. It has roots in the many tenets held by spiritual masters and martial artists throughout history. Buddhism, introduced to the Koguryo kingdom from China in 347 AD, contributed greatly to the growth of the Korean martial arts through its aim of the "Mastery of Self." Taekwondo provides a way to rid oneself of the ego, or what Zen-Buddhists call the "discriminating mind."

'To fully appreciate and understand the philosophy or spirit of Taekwondo, it is import'ant to know something of Korean history, since the traditional values of the Korean people are an integral part of the philosophy of Taekwondo. Although not based on any one religion, the philosophy of Taekwondo was influenced by the many religious beliefs of the Korean (Han) people.

The philosophy of Taekwondo has evolved over time in the same way that its physical aspects have evolved. The original philosophical aspects were based on the need for survival and defense of the homeland. Ancient Koreans, in learning to deal with natural disasters and the hardships of life, relied spiritually on the movements of nature's power, such as heaven, rain, cloud, sun, moon, trees, rocks, etc., for their consolation. As the tribal and agricultural community of the Korean people became established, so did their spirit of national unity. This developed into the principle of Seon (impeccable virtuousness), which became the basis of Korean philosophical thoughts. The idea of Seon is a very profound philosophy; it is the core of Oriental thoughts. In Seon, movements embody the spirit physically and the spirit is the inner working of the movements.

'Taekwondo philosophy is based upon the beliefs that Han people developed throughou't their history. It is related to the ancient principles of Hongik-Ingan and Jaese-Ihwa, and to the spirit of Hwarangdo. During the development of the Korean nation, particularly during the Three Kingdoms era, Taekwondo's predecessor, Taekkyon, developed into a systematized martial art. The Korean warriors (Hwarang) of the Silla Kingdom adopted Seon as their martial spirit. Based on this, they professed loyalty to their country and filial piety, and believed in the virtues of courage and of having a strong ethical code.

Ancient TimesEdit

Taekwondo philosophy developed from the traditional national thought of the Korean (Han) people. In the myth of Korean foundation, in the early age, Hwan-Wung, the son of Heaven established a nation called Baedal (earliest name of Korea). He then announced the purpose of the national foundation as Jaese-Ihwa (educate with the reason of heaven) and Hongik-Ingan (universal welfare of mankind).

'According to Korean legend, Tangun, the legendary founder of the Korean nation, advocated the idealism of Hongik-Ingan, Jaese-Ihwa, or Hwarangdo spirit. Hongik-Ingan and Jaese-Ihwa were a fundamental thought of Han people. Hongik-Ingan and Jaese-Ihwa appear clearly in the myth of Korea's foundation. According to it, "In the early age, Hwan-Wung, the son of Heaven established a nation called Baedal (earliest name of Korea), and then announced the purpose of the national foundat'ion as Jaese-Ihwa and Hongik-Ingan." With time, these ideas developed into the Hwarangdo spirit and the Taekwondo philosophy of today.

These thoughts became the basis for the Korean traditional national philosophy, and later, the basis of Taekwondo philosophy. Hongik-Ingan (universal benefits of humanism) means universal welfare of mankind. Taekwondo also embodies the idea of Hongik-Ingan since its purpose is to suppress fighting and induce peace. Jaese-Ihwa means that the world is educated in accordance with the reason of heaven. Since Taekwondo is characterized by the trinity of body, mind, it relates to Jaese-Ihwa since we may be educated in accordance with the reason of heaven through correct training in Taekwondo.

Three Kingdoms Period Edit

During the Three Kingdoms period, Koreans were having to defend themselves from foreign aggressions from China and Japan. Due to this, the kingdoms tried to consolidate national unity, stressing the spirit of national defense among the people. Buddhism and Confucianism were widely practiced. The idealism of Hongik-Ingan, represented by the philosophy of Seon, was expanded by the Hwarang warriors with the integration of Buddhist and Confucian ideas into the Hwarangdo spirit. The Hwarangdo spirit is characterized by the three virtues of loyalty, filial piety, and trust, and three virtuous conducts of modesty, frugality, and restraint.

Koryo and Chosun Dynasties Edit

Hongik-Ingan stresses respect for all human beings. The Korean people throughout the Koryo and Chosun periods were taught in their daily life to respect their superiors and treat their inferiors kindly. During this time, scholars were expressing various philosophical theories. One of the scholars, Great Scholar Yi Toe Gye, favored the theory of dualistic spiritual energy, which is represented by the four moral minds of benevolence, righteousness, propriety, and wisdom and the seven sentiments of joy, anger, sorrow, pleasure, love, vice, and avarice. Another scholar, Great Scholar Yi Yul-Kok, said in his writings, "I endeavored incessantly to achieve self-restraint until I could reach a realm of a saintly life," "I do what is to be done with all sincerity," and "Cultivation of the mind and learning should be continued without slowing down the tempo." These sayings partly reflect the spirit of Taekwondo. One of the most significant ideals of the time was that of Chon-do (doing the right thing or following the right way), which has become an integral part of Taekwondo philosophy.

Spirit of Hwarangdo Edit

The Hwarangdo spirit was based on the idea of Seon along with the integration of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. It contained the three virtues, the five principles of the world, and the three virtuous conducts.

Three VirtuesEdit

Chung (loyalty): refers to loyalty to the nation. Hyo (Filial piety): means the filial piety to the parents. Shin (Trust): means to have trust among human beings.

Five Principles of the World (Sye-sok-oh-kye)Edit

Sa-kun-lee-chung: means to follow a nation and a king with loyalty. Sa-chin-lee-hyo: means to respect parents with filial piety. Kyo-u-lee-shin: means to make friends with trust. Lim-cheon-mu-t'wi: means to not withdraw on the battlefield. Sal-saeng-yu-taek: means not to take another life, unless an unavoidable situation requires it.

Three Virtuous Conducts or Three kinds of beauty (Sam-mi)Edit

'Modesty: means the virtue to know courteous refusal. That is, it refers to services done for society without personal interests or gains. In addition, it refers to the idea of contributing to social development rather than to that of an individual. Frugality: means not to waste. If we live with the abundant materials without extravagance or waste, we will not suffer in difficult times. In addition, such frugality generates the ability to help needy people in society. Restraint: refers to self-denial. It means to win ov'er one's self or ego. Through restraint, people do not fight each other; rather, they live together in harmony.

Sam Jae and Eum/YangEdit

The philosophy of Taekwondo also is related to the principles of Sam Jae and of Eum/Yang. Sam Jae (Three Elements) refers to Cheon (the Heaven), Ji (the Earth), and In (the Man) and the principles uniting them. In oriental philosophy, these principles explain the changes of everything in the world.

In the orient, Sam Jae is central principle that explains the changes of everything in the world. Sam Jae and the changes of Eum/Yang constitute the Eight Trigrams for Divination in the Book of Changes. The principle of Eum/Yang maintains that everything has a good and bad side. Taegeuk (the Great Absolute) represents the ultimate claim that Eum and Yang are actually one and the same.

'At the core of this philosophy is the concept of duality in nature. Duality refers to the interaction of opposing forces, the Eum/Yang. The principle of Eum (the negative or darkness) and Yang ('the positive or the brightness) maintains that everything has an opposite side and that the two work in harmony with opposing forces distributed equally. If one force dominates, the result is discord. For example, to defend against an aggressive hard attack, one should use a yielding soft defense to bring the situation into harmony. Taekwondo students learn to coordinate their actions and reactions with the forces of nature so they can overcome anything they encounter in life. By centering oneself and balancing the dual forces, students may begin to achieve the true goal of the aspiration to and application of perfection.

This principle explains various forms of changes. It comes from Taegeuk (the Great Absolute), which represents the ultimate claim that Eum and Yang are the one and the same thing. Sam Jae and the changes of Eum and Yang constitute the "Eight Trigrams for Divination" in the "Book of Changes."

'Taekwondo is defined and the way of kicking and punching. Students begin Taekwondo training for various reasons, such as fitness, weight loss, discipline, and self-defense. Many 'stop th'eir training when they think they have achieved their reason for initially' beginning the training and others stop before ever reaching this point. If students continue training until they reach the "do" phase of Taekwondo training, then their initial reason for beginning the training is irrelevant. At this point, they continue training because the basic principles of Taekwondo have become an integral part of their lives. Through kicking and punching, they have achieved the way.

In today's society, there are relatively fewer chances to encounter a life-threatening situation. To spend several years of your life practicing Taekwondo would seem a high price to pay for the chance to defend yourself in the not-so-likely event of a deadly attack. Therefore, the spiritual part of Taekwondo is what should motivate everyone to practice Taekwondo.

Today's Taekwondo PhilosophyEdit

Today's Taekwondo Philosophy is best summarized by the tenets of Taekwondo that are recited at the beginning of most Taekwondo classes. Most students recite the tenets by rote without thinking about their meanings. If some thought is given to the tenets while reciting them, students would find many correlations between each tenet and what they have learned during their training and how it has affected their lives. Taekwondo philosophy is not preached at each class, instead, it is something the subtlety affects the thoughts and behavior of students over time and makes them better members of society.

Self DefenceEdit

Non Aggressive MovementsEdit

Your attacker reads your body language long before you begin your defense, so you should always present confident but non-aggressive posture and behavior.

  • Eyes. Potential attackers often "test" you through eye contact. If you show submissiveness by looking down or to the side as you move around in public (what psychologists call a "downcast demeanor"), you will pass the victim test. Keeping your eyes forward and scanning is a sign of attention and intent. If you brood, stare at the sidewalk, search through a purse or bag, read a map, etc., you will be distracted and more likely to be attacked. Exaggerated or furtive eye movements or sweeping side-to-side head movements imply fear, preoccupation, or being off guard and make you a potential victim.
  • Head. Keep chin tucked in so head is not tilting backward, keeping neck relatively straight and upright. Royalty and successful warriors returning to their home cities are often described as entering with "head held high." This head position indicates confidence.
  • Shoulders. Keep shoulders lowered slightly in a natural posture, not raised, not slouched, and not hunched. Often we raise our shoulders to indicate surprise, uncertainty, or disinterest. Tension in the shoulders will also cause them to appear raised. All of these attributes display un-readiness, which translates into vulnerability. When holding the head in proper position, the shoulders will find their natural, lowered position.
  • Children are taught to sit up straight. Slouching or slumping is associated with a lower status or position in life, which is why we call a lazy person a slouch. A slumping or hunched posture is associated with low energy, poor body coordination, and low self-esteem. Holding your shoulders lowered, but upright, presents an image of confident ability.
  • Hands. Keep hands about two inches in front of the upper thighs, fingers toward the thighs. Keeping your hands free and in front of your body conveys readiness. Keeping your hands and arms close to your body helps prevent large gestures that may be misinterpreted as insults. Avoid crossing your arms or shoving your hands into your pockets as these may be considered threatening behavior and they limit your readiness.
  • Abdomen. Keep lower abdomen flexed slightly, but keep spine straight. Height is a natural deterrent to aggressors. Standing with a straight posture makes you appear taller. Flexed abdominal muscles create a sensation and attitude of readiness. Like a spring, a slight tension, as opposed to total relaxation, prepares you for action.
  • Legs. Keep legs straight without being locked at the knees. Too much tension in the muscles around the knees constricts blood circulation, which may cause you to be light headed or even to faint. Slightly bent knees allow you to move quickly or jump without unnecessary movement.
  • Feet. Keep right lead foot about a half step from the other foot, both with toes pointed outward slightly. Consciously stand still rather than shifting your weight from one foot to the other. Shifting your weight may be interpreted as uncertainty, a sign of vulnerability. When you are under attack, then foot movements becomes an asset.
    • Tight Clothing. You will not able to kick effectively while wearing tight pants or a tight dress. Also, a tight jacket or coat will severely limit your movements and punching power.
    • Neck Ties or Scarves. It is easy to hang a prisoner who already has a noose around his neck. Do not wrap a scarf around your neck if you are in a threatening situation. Only in the movies will you see a person whip the end of a scarf around her neck and then turn a walk away from a threatening person. In real life, you would find your head being jerked backward by the attacker grabbing and jerking the scarf. Police officers are not stupid, they do not wear wrap-around ties; they wear clip-on ties (dorky officers may wear a clip on bow tie). For dress occasions or business wear, clips-on ties look fashionably bad, so you have to judge what is more important in certain situations, fashion or protection. If you are concerned for your safety and still want to look good in a tie, put on your tie in its normal way, have a friend cut it in half behind your neck, hem the ends, and sew Velcro to the ends. Then the tie may be worn normally but it will rip away if grabbed.
    • Jewelry. Jewelry not only attracts muggers, it may hamper your efforts in defending yourself against them. Necklaces or chains around the neck and pierced ears, nose, etc., make excellent weapons for your attacker to use against you. Rings may actually help you since they may enhance the effect of your punches.
    • Hampered Arms. It is difficult to defend yourself when your arms are holding packages or a child. When your arms are hampered, be more aware of your surroundings.

Non Verbal SignsEdit

  • Non-verbal signs or indicators are ways we communicate non-verbally. Many of these signs are involuntary and may give away our underlying intentions. Some non-verbal indicators as related to self-defense are:
    • Adam's Apple Jump. A conspicuous up-and-down motion of the Adam's apple such as when gulping or swallowing. It is an unconscious sign of emotional anxiety, embarrassment, or stress.
    • Clinching Teeth. Clinching the jaws in frustration and anger. A manifestation of the biting defense mechanism.
    • Hands-on-Hips. Enlarges or exaggerates the body's size to dominate, threaten, or bluff an opponent. Hands-on-hips shows that the body is prepared to "take steps."
    • Cutoff. A form of gaze avoidance in which the head is turned fully away to one side. In a conversation, a sudden cutoff gesture may indicate disagreement with a speaker's remarks. Sustained cutoff may reveal shyness or disliking.
    • Fist. A gesture made with the hand closed, the fingers flexed, and the tactile pads held firmly against the palm. Clenched fists signal an aroused emotional state, as in anger, excitement (to cheer on a team), or fear. In Pakistan, displaying a clenched fist toward another is a nonverbal sign used to display an "obscene insult."
    • Hand Behind Head. Touching, scratching, or holding the back of the neck or head with the opened palm, or reaching a hand upward to scratch an ear, grasp an earlobe, or stimulate an ear canal, or touching, scratching, or rubbing the cheek or side of the neck. In a conversation, hand-behind-head may be read as a potential sign of uncertainty, conflict, disagreement, frustration, anger, or disliking. In the United Sates, leaning back and placing both hands behind the neck in the bilateral head clamp posture is a nonverbal sign of dominance.
    • Lip Roll. A gesture produced by compressing, in-rolling, and narrowing the lips to a thin line. A position of the mouth in which the lips are visibly tightened and pressed together through contraction of the lip and jaw muscles. Lip and jaw tension clearly reflect anxious feelings, nervousness, emotional concerns, or anger. Thus a tense-mouth precisely marks the onset of a mood shift, a novel thought, or a sudden change of heart.
    • Tone of Voice. The manner in which a verbal statement is presented, such as its rhythm, breathiness, hoarseness, or loudness. Tone of voice reflects psychological arousal, emotion, and mood. It may also carry social information, as in a sarcastic, superior, or submissive manner of speaking. The more threatened or aggressive a person becomes, the lower and harsher his or her voice turns, thus, the person seem bigger.
    • Eye Contact. A visual connection made as one person gazes into the eyes of another. Gazing at another's eyes arouses strong emotions. Thus, eye contact rarely lasts longer than three seconds before one or both viewers experience a powerful urge to glance away. Breaking eye contact lowers stress levels. In Japan, listeners are taught to focus on a speaker's neck in order to avoid eye contact, while in the U.S., listeners are encouraged to gaze into a speaker's eyes.
    • Blinking. A rapid closing and opening of the eyes. Our blink rate reflects psychological arousal in the manner of a polygraph test. The normal, resting blink rate of a human is 20 closures per minute, with the average blink lasting one quarter of a second. Significantly faster rates may reflect emotional stress.
    • Raising Eyebrows. To lift the arch of short hairs above the eye, as in uncertainty, disbelief, surprise, or exasperation. Raising the eyebrows adds intensity to a facial expression. Brow-raising can strengthen a dominant stare, exaggerate a submissive pout, or boost the energy of a smile. In tandem with head-tilt-back, raising one or both eyebrows suggests a supercilious air of disdain, haughtiness, or pride.
    • Lowering Eyebrows. To frown or scowl, as in anger, concentration, displeasure, or thought. To depress, knit, pucker, or wrinkle the brow. Lowering the eyebrows is a sensitive indicator of disagreement, doubt, or uncertainty.
    • Down Gaze. Rotating the eyeballs in their sockets to a downward position, or bowing or tilting the head forward so that the eyes face the downward. May convey a defeated attitude, guilt, shame, or submissiveness. Gazing down while speaking shows that a speaker may not believe his or her own remarks. Blushing. Becoming red or rosy in the face from physical exercise, embarrassment, shyness, anger, or shame. Blushing is caused by sudden arousal of the sympathetic nervous system, which dilates the small blood vessels of the face and body. Flushing, contrary to popular belief, is never seen in a purely aggressive individual; it is a sign of actual or possible defeat.
    • Flashbulb Eyes. An involuntary and dramatic widening of the eyes, performed in situations of intense emotion, such as anger, surprise, and fear. When we are truly surprised, rather than feigning the emotion for effect, two involuntary visceral muscles in our eyelids, the superior and inferior tarsals, widen our eye slits to make the eyes appear noticeably rounder, larger, and whiter. As visceral signs, true flashbulb eyes are difficult to produce at will. Thus, they are all the more trustworthy as nonverbal cues, especially of terror or rage. In angry individuals, flashbulb eyes are a danger sign of imminent verbal aggression or physical attack.
    • Blank Face. A neutral, relaxed, seemingly "expressionless" face, with the eyes open and lips closed. The deadpan face we adopt at home alone while resting, reading, and watching TV. Though "expressionless," the blank face sends a strong emotional message "Do Not Disturb." In shopping malls, elevators, or subways, we adopt neutral faces to distance ourselves from strangers. The blank face is a subtle sign used to keep others a polite distance away.
    • Head Tilted Back. Lifting the chin and leaning the head backward. Lifting the chin and looking down the nose are used throughout the world as nonverbal signs of superiority, arrogance, and disdain. In Greece and Saudi Arabia, a sudden head-tilt-back movement means "No." In Ethiopia, the same gesture means "Yes."
    • Bending Away. Flexing the spinal column sideward to increase the physical distance between two people to enlarge or exaggerate the body's size to dominate, threaten, or bluff an opponent.
    • Decision Grip. A manner of grasping an object securely between the inner surfaces of the fingers and the palm. A clear indication of ownership.
    • Disgust. A sickening feeling of revulsion, loathing, or nausea. Disgust shows in a curled upper lip, digestive vocalizations, narrowed eyes, lowered brows, backward head-jerks and side-to-side head-shakes, visible protrusions of the tongue, wrinkled nose, raised nostrils, and lowered inner corners of the eyebrows.
    • Fear. A usually unpleasant, visceral feeling of anxiety, apprehension, or dread. Fear shows in an exaggerated angular distance, increase in breathing rate, trembling and chattering teeth, crouching, crying, faster eye-blank rate, the fear grin, widely opened flashbulb eyes, the hair-bristle, an accelerated heart rate, tightened muscle tension, screaming, squirming, staring eyes with enlarged pupils, sweaty palms, tense mouth, throat clear, tense voice, yawning, statue motionless and breathless, crouching down, violent heartbeat, pale skin, cold sweat, erect hair, trembling muscles, dry mouth, avoidance, hiding, wary watching, cowering, and clinging
    • Uplifted Palms. A speaking or listening gesture made with the fingers extended and the hand(s) rotated to an upward position in an appealing, imploring, or "begging" position. Uplifted palms suggest a vulnerable or non aggressive pose which appeals to listeners as allies, rather than as rivals or foes. Throughout the world, palm-up cues reflect moods of congeniality, humility, and uncertainty.
    • Palm Down Gesture. A speaking or listening cue made with the fingers extended and the hand(s) rotated to a downward position. A posture in which the hands and forearms assume the arm position used in a pushup. While speaking or listening to another's remarks, palm-down gestures show confidence, assertiveness, and dominance. When accompanied by aggressive, palm-down "beating" signs, remarks appear stronger and more convincing.
    • Shoulder Shrug. To lift, raise, or flex forward one or both shoulders in response to another person's statement, question, or physical presence; or to one's own inner thoughts, feelings, and moods. The shoulder shrug is a universal sign of resignation, uncertainty, and submissiveness. Shrug cues may modify, counteract, or contradict verbal remarks. A shrug reveals misleading, ambiguous, or uncertain areas in dialogue.
    • Clearing Throat. A nonverbal vibration of the vocal cords caused by a sudden, involuntary release of air pressure from the lungs. Suggests disagreement, anxiety, doubt, deception, or to announce one's physical presence in a room.

Multiple AttackersEdit

A multiple attacker self-defense situation is chaotic and life threatening, even when the attackers do not intend to kill you. To defeat multiple attackers, you must believe you can defeat them, and then you must create chaos without becoming a part of it. Since your life may depend upon the outcome, multiple attacker self-defense techniques are often brutal. This means you must mentally prepare yourself.

Instead of training not to lose, you should train to win. There are three possible mindsets when facing a self-defense situation:

    • I am going to lose.
    • I will lose, but I will take some of them with me.
    • I am going to win. Since survival is the ultimate goal, this is the only acceptable mind set. You survive by winning.

When fighting multiple attackers, every second is vital. During every second of the fight, you must optimize your time and cause the attackers to waste theirs. Do not waste time with non-productive motions, such as cocking your hand to throw a strike or excessive shifting of the feet to execute a kick. Multiple attackers do not attack one at a time, as seen in movies. One will usually initiate the attack and then the others will all rush in. Try to maneuver one or more attackers, or yourself, to interfere with the attack opportunities of the other attackers. Target kicks and strikes to vital points of the body that make it difficult or impossible for the attackers to see, breathe, or use their arms and legs. Try to identify the leader of the group and take him or her out of the fight quickly and decisively. If you cannot neutralize the leader, immediately try to take away his or her leadership by showing the rest of the group that the leader cannot protect them. Instead of trying to knock all the attackers out, try to make them scream and run or announce their injury, such as "I can't see!" or "My leg is broken!" This may cause the other attackers to retreat.

Mobility is essential when facing multiple attackers. Move fluidly, at angles. Circle, keeping opponents off balance. Avoid step-drag steps. Stepping your front leg forward and then dragging your rear leg forward, or vice versa, is predictable and the first step is wasted movement. The only reason to step backward is to attack. Moving backward to retreat allows your attackers to triangulate on you and converge on you at about the same time. If you are surrounded, you cannot favor one side; you have to fight well ambidextrously;

Actions to take when facing multiple attackersEdit

    • When in doubt as to who the leader is, neutralize the person behind you.
    • Hurt an attacker but leave him or her standing so you can use him or her against the others or as a shield.
    • Position yourself to use an attacker as a shield. Use an attacker as a weapon. Put attackers in each other's way.
    • Use your environment, such as objects as weapons or obstacles
    • Strike and kick the person you are not looking at.
    • Use compact, short, choppy strikes while moving instead of wide sweeping motions while stationary.
    • Keep kicks low and execute while moving. Retract them quickly. Use kicks to keep opponents at a distance
    • Do more than one thing at a time. For example, kick one attacker as you strike another or push one into another as you kick a third.
    • Move fluidly, but erratically. Do not be predictable.
    • Keep a low center of gravity.
    • If you cannot avoid an attack, block or jam it. If you cannot block an attack, roll with it to avoid injury.
    • Eliminate unnecessary movement.
    • While it may be quite effective one on one, during a multiple attack, applying an arm lock, leg lock, or choke on one attacker will allow the others to do whatever they want to you.
    • Do not waste time on things that are non-productive, only use effective techniques.
    • Create hesitation by stunning your opponents with powerful attacks, loud kiai, etc.
    • Strike with conviction.
    • Use objects and obstacles around you to your advantage
    • Use intimidation. Act bigger than you are, such as they way cats fluff up. Stand tall and expand your chest.
    • Attack the leader first.
    • Stay away from the center, work from the flanks.
    • Read the reaction to your actions.
    • While more opponents mean more chances of your getting hit, more opponents also mean you have more potential obstacles to use. You may use one opponent as a shield against an attack from another opponent.

Training for self-defense training against multiple attackersEdit

    • Multiple heavy bag drill. Set up at least three different sized hanging heavy bags to practice smoothly moving from one to the other, striking them without looking directly at them, and not getting hit by them as they swing. Try to keep all the bags in view without focusing on one bag.
    • Evasion drill. Have people throw soft objects at you from various directions. Evading a thrown object teaches one to "take in" the whole space. If you look the object coming at you, it will hit you. Do not "tunnel" you vision, "funnel" it. When you spread your vision, you may compare the speed of the incoming object to the stationary objects in the area.
    • Three-on-one grip breaking drill. Knowledge of breaking various grips, such as clothing, hair, or wrist grips, is a prerequisite. Have two or more attackers grab you, moving at a slow to moderate pace. Move constantly and economically, breaking grips with as little struggle as possible. Use splitting (stepping between assailants), screening (using one assailant to block another), and redirecting (deflecting one assailant into another assailant or a solid object).
    • Redirection drill. Redirect attacker who attempts to grab your legs, tackle you, or pin you against a wall. Start slowly and progressively pick up speed.
    • Two-on-one blocking drill. Stand in one spot so you are forced to block and not evade. Two attackers stand at 45-degree angles in front and throw strikes and kicks.
    • Three-on-one scenarios. Three attackers in full protective equipment attack good guy. Try to attack vital targets without getting pummeled or held down and stomped.
    • Ground fighting. Although you should avoid going to the ground with multiple attackers, it may happen. Therefore, you should train in multiple attacker defenses while you are on the ground and attackers are standing.
    • Environmental changes. Self-defense situation occur under all types of environmental conditions, such as wet, cold, low light, no light, strobe lights, different color lights, and intermittent bright lights. To simulate these conditions, use blindfolds, water on floor, or changing light conditions.
    • Fighting with injury. You will get hit in a multiple attacker attack and will probably be injured in some way. To simulate injuries, use an eye patch, tie and arm to belt, or wear a leg weight.

Defusing a SituationEdit

Try to defuse the situation. The battle will be more with your own ego than it will be with your antagonist. Do not be afraid to admit that you do not want trouble. Leave at the first opportunity. He who runs away live to fight another day.

Take command of the situation. Step back and raise both hands, arms outstretched, palms facing the antagonist, and issue the command "Stop! Leave me alone!" This works sometimes because:

  • When you step back with your hands up, you are controlling the range, not the antagonist.
  • You have given notice that you are willing to resist.
  • With your hands up, you have marked a boundary that tends to keep an opponent further away.
  • Witnesses can instantly identify that there is a problem.
  • You keep your weapons in between you and the antagonist. Your front hand is a gauge of range, if you may touch the antagonist with your front hand, you may also touch with your rear hand.
  • When you have your hands up protecting your centerline, you force the antagonist to either swing around your hands or to grab or move your hands.

This technique is also a way to gauge when the fight has started. When you use the command technique, it is obvious to everyone when the fight has started. If the antagonist stay back and continues the confrontation, everything is still just verbal. However, if the antagonist moves forward into you hands, it is obvious the antagonist is attacking. If the antagonist does not advance, then slowly back away and leave.

If you cannot talk the situation down, you might try posturing. It works for bull walruses. Create a gap between you and your aggressor by shoving him or her hard on the chest and then go crazy: shout, salivate, spread your arms, bulge your eyes, and use single syllables. This may cause the aggressor to back up in amazement. If so, make wild and crazy retreat.

If escape, dissuasion, and posturing fail, and you ,as a reasonable and prudent person, believe you are about to be attacked you are left with two choices: defend or stand there and be hit. If you choose to defend, then strike first and hard, with a fist or the forehead (since they are closest to the opponent's jaw), preferably on the jaw since it is a direct link to the brain. Do not wait for the aggressor's attack, your block may not be effective. If your strike is effective, leave. Any more strikes may may you the aggressor in the eyes of the law.



Study the rulesEdit

  • Know the rules of each tournament regarding acceptable techniques, amount of contact allowed, out of bounds, tolerance, etc.
  • Know the rules for appealing a contest.

Study OpponentsEdit

Watch opponents while they are warming up before competition. This is a time when competitors like to show off to spectators and are not thinking about you watching so they may give away some of their secrets

  • If person warming up using very flexible exercises, he or she will probably be a high kicker. Many flexible kickers like to kick so they do not train very much using their hands.
  • If the person is not too flexible, he or she will probably be a flat-footed puncher while sparring.
  • Watch the way the person shadow boxes. Does he or she have quick hands or quick kicks? How quick is his or her footwork and other body movements?
  • Examine body types.
    • A tall person will use reach to his or her advantage, using kicks and long punches.
    • A short person will either try and to get inside or will probe you with kicks and punches to get you to attack so he or she may counterattack.
    • A person with a strong upper body will most likely be a puncher and will probably like to press the attack, leading mainly with punches.
    • A person with a strong lower body will probably use kicks from the outside.
    • How long are a person's legs compared to yours?

Fighting StylesEdit


Elusive FightersEdit

  • These are the runners. Rather than stand their ground, they move away from an attack.
  • They would rather avoid an attack than block.
  • Usually are not physically intimidating.
  • Endurance may be lacking.
  • They may be unsure of their abilities and they to avoid confrontation or they may be highly skilled fighters who float like a butterfly and sting like a bee by moving away to avoid attacks, swiftly counter attack, and then again move back out of range.

To Defeat

  • Entice them to come to you by providing an opening.
  • If they run backward, use long range techniques, such as rear leg kicks, sliding kicks, or jumping kicks.
  • Control where they may run, or cause them to run in the direction you choose.
  • If they run to the sides, try to figure which side they tend to move to and make them move into your attack.
  • "Spook" them with a feign attack, and then move in swiftly to their new location.

Analytical FightersEdit

  • These are fighters who stand their ground, block, and counter attack.
  • They usually physically strong with tight, close-in blocks and attacks.
  • May be physically intimidating.

To Defeat

  • Analyze their style of fighting and develop tactics to overcome them.
  • Act tired to draw them in.
  • Use quick double kicks to get around their defenses.
  • Mix slow and fast techniques.
  • Mix circular and linear techniques
  • Attack at varying heights, low, middle, and high, with hands and feet.
  • Lift your leg to fake a kick, and then attack with hands.
  • Use their instincts against them, such as look high but attack low
  • Attack them from an angle, rather than straight in.


Five A's of CombatEdit

Although it is important to be able to defend yourself physically when violently attacked, it is even more important to prepare yourself mentally before you reach this point. This mental preparation falls into five categories, the five "A's."

Awareness: Be aware of everything around you, everything that could and may happen to you. Denial of danger is the biggest mistake of all.

Attitude: This involves the way you carry yourself, how you speak and act. Be friendly, but suspicious. If attacked, be angry, but control the anger. Do not be intimidated; be assertive. Your attitude will go a long way in preventing a potential attacker from even contemplating an attack on you.

Avoidance: Take steps to make your environment as safe as possible by avoiding potential problems. The more avoidance procedures you adopt the less your chance of being attacked.

Assessment: Make a threat assessment of each threat potential and decide what action may be required. Choosing what to say and do in a given situation is very important since you may make the situation worse by your words or actions.

Action: Once the above categories fail, you will have to fight for your life. Overcome any fears you may have and act with speed, power, and efficiency. Do not hesitate to act.

Three D's of CombatEdit

In a self-defense situation, you have three choices, the three "D's," you may either deny, delay, or defeat the aggressor.

Denial. You may deny the attacker by running away, blocking the attack, seeking protection, or removing the attacker's means of attack.

Delay. You may delay the attacker by involving him or her in conversation, running away and knocking objects in front of the pursuer, or use objects in the area to obstruct the attacker.

Defeat. Defeat the attacker by attacking and conquering him or her.

Killer InstinctEdit

Most martial artists would not survive a real-life street encounter. In their arrogant overconfidence gained from training in strictly controlled one-step and free sparring, their survival instinct has been dampened. They have become Taekwondo athletes, similar to dancers. They know the techniques, but they lack the "killer instinct" necessary for survival.

Do not think think this "killer instinct" is unnecessary or that you could never develop that kind of instinctive, animal-like focus. When a mother is forced to protect her child from harm, she instinctively enters this mindset. When you are so anger and indignant that you no longer care about the consequences, you are also in this frame of mind. You can, and you must, learn to consciously cultivate this mindset. You must be prepared to fight as if you were about to die at any moment. This overpowering desire to survive at any cost is what self-defense is really about.

Self-defense has nothing to do with breaking boards or kicking and punching while making loud yells. It is a state of mind, a type of consciousness, a peculiar awareness that keeps you alert and able to respond to any possible danger. The actions are merely physical movements, which are totally useless without a survival mindset.

In combat, you cannot worry about the educational background, religious background, economic background, race, nationality, etc. of your attacker. You must have a combat mentality that can channel destructive forces that exceed those of an aggressor. You must be a cold, vicious animal; free of sympathy, fear, anger, apprehension, and ego. You must possess killer instinct.

Some martial arts do not stress, or even discourage, a combat mentality. It is concerned uncivilized and barbaric. For some, it violates their religious and philosophical beliefs. Others replace it with a competitive, sport-oriented mentality that lacks the brutal and aggressive characteristics necessary to neutralize a crazed criminal attacker.

Everyone has a killer instinct. This is how humans have survived to this day. It is stronger in some than in others. In less civilized times, those without it did not survive. Now, we protect them and they try to justify their inaction as being the "right" thing to do, at least until they need protection, then they want the ones with the killer instinct, the warriors, to protect them. Some manifest the killer instinct inappropriately in blind rage or haphazard fury. They are driven by a raw killer instinct that is inferior and undisciplined. Their energies are poisoned by emotion, resulting in poor techniques and tactical errors.

On the other hand, warriors tap into the emotional calm and mental clarity of the killer instinct, and, by using virtue and courage can disperse deadly destructiveness appropriately, without the constraints of emotions. This may sound paradoxical or extreme, but a warrior must be virtuous, and yet capable of unleashing controlled viciousness and brutality. Napoleon once said, "The moral are to the physical forces as three are to one."

The killer instinct is predicated on being emotionless. A warrior must temporarily eliminate fear, anger, remorse, and ego from consciousness. From childhood, we are conditioned to express feelings for ourselves and others. Humans are expressive beings, crying when hurt, laughing when happy, and yelling when angry; however, a warrior must remain emotionless during a violent confrontation because emotions create indecisiveness and dangerous tactical judgments. Control of emotions also prevents anger from weakening the warrior.

Anger is a useless emotion that wastes energy and causes poor judgment. The famous satirist Pietro Aretino said, "Angry men are blind and foolish, for reason at such time takes flight and, in her absence, wrath plunders all the riches of the intellect, while the judgment remains the prisoner of its own pride."

A warrior must not fear death or physical disfigurement. Some see fear as a positive defensive attribute, believing the "fight or flight" syndrome will help defeat the enemy. However, if fear causes inaction or insufficient action, it is detrimental.

A warrior must be vicious, capable of extreme violence. Some consider this revolting, at least until they need a vicious person to protect them. A warrior must be more vicious than his adversary. Modern soldiers are supposed to be guided by the Geneva Convention (the rules of war); as if you can impose rules on the enemy. As exhibited by the 9/11/2001 attack on the United States, the enemy has no respect for the Geneva Convention. To convince the enemy to stop its aggression, you must be more ruthless than they are, or you will fail. If you do not believe it, just look at the results of wars, both ancient and recent.

A warrior has a unified mind that is free from distractions and fully focused on the enemy. Distractions are derived from two sources: internal, where the mind wanders or panics; and external, such as an adversary attempting to "psych you out" or environmental conditions such as weather, lighting, terrain, etc. acting upon your senses. A warrior must control thinking, situational awareness, adrenaline manipulation, physical mobilization, psychomotor control, tunnel vision, courage, tactical implementation, breath control, pain tolerance, and habituation to violence.

Everyone has a killer instinct. In some, it is weak; in some, it is strong. In some it is suppressed, in some it is expressed. For the warrior, the killer instinct must be nurtured and cultivated into a controlled response that acts for the good of all.

Effects of AgeEdit

As we age, our strength, quickness, and endurance decrease, which degrades our defense abilities. However, as we age our knowledge and experience increase, which increases our defense ability. Sometimes wisdom and experience can make up for the ravages of age. In addition, age has another physical advantage over youth—the ability to grasp the big picture visually. Older persons become more aware of their surroundings.

Research has shown that older people have improved skill in tracking peripheral movement; they are better able to comprehend the total image of events unfolding around them. This skill is advantageous in a multi-person confrontation, when moving around in a street environment, or even on a sporting field.

Research at McMaster’s University in Ontario, Canada, published in the February 2005 issue of Neuron, tested young adult college students against adults in their 60s and 70s. One test measured how quickly subjects processed information on the sideways movement of vertical bars seen on the screen of a computer. Younger subjects took less time in detecting sideways motion when the bars were small or low in contrast, but when the bars were large or high in contrast, older subjects performed better.

These results show a difference in how signals are processed in the younger versus older brains. Differences in brain chemistry allow younger brains to concentrate one thing while filtering out non-useful information within their field of vision. For example, a child can quickly find a desired toy in a clutter room while the adult is distracted by the clutter.

As people age, it is more difficult for them to concentrate on any single thing and ignore everything else. The benefit is that they become more visually aware of everything around them. In a crowded room, younger people are able to concentrate on one conversation and reject all the other conversations around them while older people tend to be distracted by other conversations. While talking to one person, they notice what is being said everywhere else in the room.

When on the street, younger people tend to concentrate on one thing while being oblivious to their surroundings. Bad guys take advantage of this. At a coffee bar, a thief can steal a young person's briefcase while he or she is concentrating on a laptop computer screen and the person will not notice it. On the other hand, an older person will constantly be distracted by movements around him or her. This may cause it to take longer for the person to comprehend what is on the computer screen, but it helps prevent a thief from getting too close with being noticed.

Effects of BlowsEdit

Blows have consequences. When you strike another person, you may injure the part of your body used to do the striking. And, of course, when you strike another person, you may injure or kill that person.

This topic discusses some of the effects that may result from blows to certain areas of the body.

Blow to Top of HeadEdit

  • Blow to the coronal suture, the line of juncture of the frontal bone and the parietal bones, may cause death due to severe trauma to the cerebrum and disruptive stimulation of cranial nerves.
  • Blow to the frontal fontanel, the region between the forehead and the coronal suture that is exposed and seen to pulsate in a newborn infant, may cause death due to concussion and trauma to cranial nerves.

Blow to ForeheadEdit

  • If the head is moving toward the blow, the brain membrane (dura) may be torn causing a concussion. Also, if one is knocked unconscious and falls, the relaxed head may hit the ground causing a concussion,
  • Blow may snap the head back, whiplash, which may chip the spional process and cause great pain.
  • Blow to the offrontal sinus may cause one to two black eyes or may cause a fracture that may cause bleeding from nose and may push bone fragments into the brain.

Blow to TempleEdit

  • A fracture of the temporal region of the skull may result in middle meningeal hemorrhage. The artery is located in a grove in the skull and may be easily pinched during a skull fracture. If the artery is cut, there may be massive hemorrhage and quick death. A small leak may cause a extradural hematoma with delayed death.
  • If the blow is one inch below the temple, a fracture of the zygomatic process may occur causing painful operation of the mouth. A blow to the suture of zygomatic (cheekbone) and frontal bone may cause loss of consciousness due to trauma to cranial nerves or a loss of sensory and motor functions.
  • Blow to temporal region may also rupture an eardrum.

Blow to EarsEdit

  • Blow may cause a concussion.
  • If the eardrum ruptures, the rushing air may cause the auditory canal and estachian tubes to swell causing great pain. There may also be ear, nose, and mouth bleeding.
  • Blow may break or dislocate the jaw hinge.

Blow to ChestEdit

  • Blow to the suprasternal notch (the concave area on the ventral surface of the neck, between the sternum (breastbone) below and the hyoid bone above) may block the windpipe and cause suffocation.
  • Blow to the sternal angle (area just below the juncture of the manubrium and the sternum) may cause trauma to the heart, bronchus, arteries supplying the upper part of the body, and the pulmonary artery that may result in malfunction of the respiratory system and shock.
  • Blow to the xiphoid process (the lowest part of the sternum) may cause trauma to the liver, stomach and heart, leading to shock and disturbance of the nervous system followed by loss of motor functions.
  • Blow to solar plexus (concave area just below the sternum) may cause trauma to the stomach and liver, leading to damage to adjacent regions.
  • Blow to side of rib cage may result in a green stick fracture where a rib fractures longitudinal along its length rather than across.
  • Blow to side of rib cage may break rib and causing it to puncture a lung. The collapsed lung may let the heart to shift toward other lung causing spasm and death. Diaphragm may rise and strike a broken rib causing it to retract causing shallow breathing. Intercostal rib muscles can only handle breathing for a short time if the diaphragm is injured. If diaphragm is irritated by blood, it may cause hiccups. For maximum effect, tow blows should be used to ribs; the first to break a rib, the second to force the broken rib into the lungs. Lower floating ribs are not connected to the spine and are difficult to break since they are too flexible.

Blow to Right Side of AbdomenEdit

  • May cause deep fissure in the liver causing peritonitis, hiccupping from bile or blood irritating the diaphragm, pain, tenderness, or death.
  • May tear the gall bladder; before a meal the gall bladder fills with digestive juices and is easily burst. Juices would start to digest internal organs. Only surgery would prevent death.

Blow to the inguinal region (inner area of the upper thigh, part of the musculature of the pubic bones) may cause loss of consciousness due to trauma of the underlying artery and nerve causing an unusual type of pain in the hip and abdomen that produces the loss of motor function.

  • Lateral Lower Thigh: Middle part of the lateral vastus muscle. The cause of the loss of consciousness is cramping of the muscle in the thigh, leading to pain in the lower Abdomen and the loss of motor function in the leg.
  • Blow to upper groin may cause hernia by letting bowel, bladder or abdominal membrane protrude through the inguinal and femoral rings (holes in the abdominal wall that allow nerves and veins to exit). Hernia may cause thrombosis or cut off blood to the leg.
  • Blow to groin may rupture the bladder, especially when it is full, and spill urine into the body. If bladder is bruised, it may cause urinary retention. Chance of infection is great.
  • Blow to center of public bone, its weakest area, may fracture it causing great pain when moving legs
  • Blow to the testes may cause trauma to the nerves and arteries of the testicles and groin, inducing the testicles to rise and in turn producing the loss of motor function, the inability to breathe, and loss of conscious. Urethra may rupture resulting in bloody or no irritation.

Blows to the NeckEdit

The Neck is the thinnest section of the spine. it should be stuck with a forward and downward blow or with a neck twist.

  • Blow may cause a whiplash injury. Symptoms of neck pain and headaches may occur at latter date.
  • Blow may break the neck causing complete paralysis below the break. If break is above the fifth cervical vertebra, death may be immediate. Break may cause loss of bladder and bowel control. The spinal cord is made up of numerous nerves; damage to any one of them may cause problems.
  • Blow to the phrenic nerve, that leads to the diaphragm between the second and forth vertebra, may sever it and cause death due to respiratory paralysis. The nerve may be easily injured.
  • Blow to concavity behind the ear between the mastoid process and the lower jaw may cause trauma to the cranial nerves and the spinal cord, resulting in the loss of sensory and motor function.
  • Shock waves from the blow may reach the brain and cause concussion.

The back from shoulders to hipsEdit

  • Blow to middle of the scapular ridge of the spine at the level of the third intercostal space may cause trauma to the lungs and spinal cord producing difficulty in breathing and blood circulation with the loss of motor function.
  • Blow to the spine in area between fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae may cause trauma to the spinal cord, aorta, heart, and lungs, leading to the loss of sensory and motor functions and breathing stoppage.
  • Blow to lumbar region of the spine to the left and right sides of the ninth and eleventh thoracic vertebrae. These two areas are more effective points for attack. A kidney may be ruptured by hydrostatic pressure of the impact or by impact with the twelfth rib although kidneys are usually injured by puncture by a broken rib. Kidney may be torn from its mooring causing bleeding or a kink in the ureter causing blockage and infection. Blow to spine may result in a slipped disk that may have varying effects.
  • Blow to tip of the spine may result in trauma to the entire spinal cord, leading to cerebral trauma and the loss of sensory and motor function.

The area below the hipsEdit

  • Blow to the gluteal fold (the central portion of the back of the upper thigh just below the buttock) may result in trauma to the sciatic nerve and produce an unusual type of pain in the abdomen and hip regions.
  • Blow to the lower part of the soleus muscle may result in trauma to the tibial artery and tibial nerve producing pain in the abdominal and hip regions which causes a loss of motor functions

Blows to ArmsEdit

  • Blow to dorsal surface of upper arm (the middle part between the biceps and triceps) may result in trauma to the ulnar and median nerves and blood vessels of the upper arm. This produces pain in the chest and neck and the loss of motor functions. Blow may fracture the humouous bone. The ulna, radial, and median nerves may be injured causing paralysis of the arm.
    • Blow to lateral surface of the elbow may result in trauma to the ulnar nerve producing pain in the chest and neck also causing the loss of motor functions. Blow to elbow may tear the bursa (lubricating sac of joint) causing tremendous swelling and pain.
    • Blow to arm may tear muscles or ligaments or pull them loose. Branchial artery may also be damaged.
  • Blow to dorsal surface of the wrist (the space between the ends of the radius and ulna bones) may result in trauma to the median nerve and the loss of motor functions to the hand.
  • Blow to inside wrist (area between brachioradilis and flexor muscles of the fingers) may result in trauma to the underlying nerve and artery, leading to pain that affects the chest and throat regions and causes the loss of motor functions and the loss of consciousness.
  • Blow to back of the hand (especially the points between thumb and the index finger, also points between middle and ring finger) may result in loss of consciousness due to shock to the median nerve leading to pain in the chest and throat regions that will produce the loss of motor function. A similar result may occur from striking any one of the bones on the back of the hand.

Blow to the LegEdit

  • Blow to thigh may fracture or dislocate the femur and may result in inability to stand.
    • A break in the muscle sheath may cause a lump where the muscles protrude.
    • Blow to back of knee may damage popliteal blood vessels causing large hematoma. It may damage the tabialis nerve causing paralysis below the knee. Blow may tear muscles or ligaments.
    • Blow to front of knee may cause light to heavy sprain, ruptured blood vessels, torn bursa, torn ligaments, or abraded or torn semi-lunat cartilage. Very painful since the bones may rub against each other.
    • Blow to shin may break tibia and/or fibia. If only one breaks the other may act as splint. Bones may shatter because of the weight on them
    • Blow to the medial malleous (a point on the medial surface of the tarsal bone just below the ankle) may result in trauma to tibial artery, causing pain in the hip area that leads to the loss of motor function.
    • Blow to Achilles tendon may sprain it or cause backward dislocation of foot.
    • Blow to top lateral part of foot just below the heads of the fourth and fifth metatarsals may cause pain and inability to walk.

Blows to NervesEdit

The external tissues surrounding a nerve may be bruised from blunt trauma casing pressure on the nerve causing temporary paralysis. If the myelin sheath that covers a nerve is cut, then the nerve takes longer to heal, If a nerve is separated, it may cause permanent paralysis.

  • Brachial Plexus Nerve

Comes out of the neck near the spinal cord slightly above the shoulders, goes under the collar bone (clavicle), through the armpit, and down the arm. It may be struck with a blow directed at the base of the neck at the shoulders, by breaking the clavicle, or by striking inward and upward into the armpit.

  • Medulla Oblongata

Located at the base of the skull where it connects to the spine, it is one of the most vital areas. It may be struck with any type of blow to the base of the skull.

  • Sciatic Nerve

One of the largest nerves in the body. It emerges from the rump and extends down the center of the backside of each leg, one to two inches below the skin. It controls the lifting and placement of the foot. It has no protection except for the overlying muscles.

  • Thoracic Section of the Spinal Cord

The lower section of the spinal cord. Next to the neck, it is the weakest area of the spine.


When sparring, contact to the back is illegal and will draw a warning or possible disqualification. Two reasons for this are the kidneys and the spine. A ruptured kidney could lead to death if not treated quickly, but, with treatment, you would probably recover with no further problems. However, depending on the location of the fracture, a fracture to the spine could result in serious problems, some of which may be permanent. In a life or death, self-defense situation, the spine may be a valid target. The effects of a strike to the spine will depend on where it is struck, the force of the strike, and the severity of the injury.

The spine is divided into four segments, with the coccyx (tail bone) at the base:

  • Cervical
  • Thoracic
  • Lumbar
  • Sacrum

Each disk in a segment and its associated nerves is named with a letter-number combination.

Each disk is associated with certain bodily functions. The following table indicates functions affected by each disk and what the possible effects may be if disk injured.

Cervical Segment Edit

Disk Functions Effects of Injury
C1 Pituitary gland, brain, and sympathetic nervous system

Unconsciousness, headache, dizziness, and insomnia

C2 Eyes, optic nerves, and auditory nerves Blindness, deafness, and unconsciousness
C3 Trifacial nerve Eustachian tube Neck glands, pharynx, vocal cords Neck muscles and shoulders Thyroid gland, shoulder joints, and elbows Neuralgia and neuritis
C4 Eustachian tube Loss of hearing and movement of shoulder
C5 Neck glands, pharynx, vocal cords Loss of voice and movement of arms
C6 Neck muscles and shoulders Neck and upper arm paralysis
C7 Thyroid gland, shoulder joints, and elbows Loss of arm and shoulder movement

ThoracicSegment Edit

Disk Functions Effects of Injury

Arms from elbows down, esophagus and trachea

Loss of breath, difficult breathing, and pain in lower arms and hands

T2 Heart and coronary arteries Loss of the heart function and chest conditions
T3 Lungs, bronchial tubes, and chest Loss of breath, fever, and night sweating
T4 Gall bladder Malfunction of gall bladder
T5 Liver, solar plexus, blood, and splanchnic nerve Death, vomiting blood, cardiac pain, poor circulation, liver problems, and dizziness
T6 Stomach, splanchnic nerve Death, vomiting blood, cardiac pain, and abdominal pain
T7 Pancreas, duodenum, splanchnic nerve Coughing, pain in chest and back, stiffness of the spinal column, and vomiting
T8 Spleen, splanchnic nerve. Stiffness in back, vomiting, and abdominal pain
T9 Adrenal and supra-renal glands, splanchnic nerve Pain in chest, blurry vision, and mental confusion
T10 Kidneys and abdomen Kidney problems and hardening of arteries
T11 Kidney and uterus Kidney problems and abdominal pains
T12 Small intestines, lymph circulation Sterility and abdominal pain

Lumbar SegmentEdit

Disk Functions Effects of Injury
L1 Large intestines, inguinal rings

Internal ruptures, undigested food, and intestinal malfunction

L2 Appendix, abdomen, upper legs, femoral nerve Cramps, difficulty in breathing, impotency, thigh paralysis, and blurred vision
L3 Sex organs, uterus, bladder, knees, femoral nerve Bladder trouble, thigh paralysis, and knees
T4 Prostate gland, muscles of lower back, sciatic and femoral nerve Difficult and painful urination, impotence, and hip paralysis
L5 Lower legs, ankles, feet, sacral nerves Poor circulation and weakness in legs, hip paralysis, and leg paralysis

Sacrum SegmentEdit

Disk Functions Effects of Injury

Sacral nerves for vessels on leg

Hip and leg or foot paralysis

S2 Distal colon, rectum, external genitalia, and pelvic nerve Hip, leg or foot paralysis, and retention of urine
S3 Bladder, distal colon, rectum, external genitalia, and pelvic nerve Paralysis of leg
S4 Bladder, distal colon, rectum, external genitalia, and pelvic nerve Paralysis of hip joint and lower back
S5 Sympathetic chain and sacral nerves Paralysis of lower extremities


Disk Functions Effects of Injury

Coccygeal nerve, rectum, and anus

Paralysis of both legs


Think that all your techniques that helped you earn all your forms competition trophies, or even your sparring trophies, will protect you on the street. Think the deadly techniques espoused by your martial art will protect on the street. Well, maybe they will, that is maybe they will if you are not so scared to death at the moment that you cannot use them.

Ever see Don Fry fight in ultimate fighting matches. He is a master of the stare-down. Not only is he a big, powerful, and tough looking guy, he capitalizes on his appearance by using stares and facial expression to make you think he wants to break you into small pieces, and, by many accounts, this is not an act. Imagine accidently bumping your car into his car at an intersection one lonely night just after he just lost a tough fight. You get out of your car to check the damage and suddenly he leaps out of his car and comes raging toward you. I do not care who you are or what you know, you will be sacred sh*tless.


How will you react? Will you even be able to react, or will you be paralyzed with fear? Even the best combat trained police officers and soldiers have experienced “freezing” when faced with moral danger.

When faced with mortal danger, the human body instinctively reacts by releasing an enormous surge of adrenaline, the most powerful hormone in the body, which causes certain predictable physiological and psychological responses within the body. This reaction is often called the “fight-or-flight reflex." Although these effects may be lessened by intensive training, they are occur involuntarily and cannot be consciously prevented.

Therefore, the fight-or-flight reflex is not a matter of courage or lack thereof, it is an instinctive response controlled mostly by the autonomic nervous system. When the brain sense mortal danger, your sympathetic nervous system instantly dumps a variety of hormones into your body that cause a high arousal state known as fear. In this state, your body operates differently than it normally does and sometimes you have no control over its actions. These changes take effect immediately and may last for a long time, so their effects may linger long after the actual threat is removed. One common effect precipitated by these effects is the distortion of perceived time, called tachypsychia.


Ever had the following happen to you or heard of it happening to someone else. You are sparring at a tournament and really getting into the fight. Suddenly, it seems that everything is happening in slow motion, giving you plenty of time to block and attack. It all seems so effortless. Alternatively, you are really into a fight, and suddenly it is over; you cannot believe it went so quickly.

There is a term for this phenomenon; it is called tachypsychia, a neurological condition that distorts the perception of time, usually brought on by physical exertion, physical stress, drug use, a traumatic event, or a violent confrontation. It is believed to be caused by a combination of high levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the body.

When under the effect of tachypsychia, perceived time may lengthen (brought on by the increased brain activity caused by epinephrine), making events appear to slow down; or perceived time may contract (caused by a severe decrease in brain activity caused by the "adrenaline dump"), making events appear to move in a speeding blur. Martial arts instructors often call this effect the Tachy Psyche effect.

Upon being stimulated by fear or anger, the adrenal medulla automatically injects the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) directly into the blood stream, the "adrenaline dump." This can have numerous effects on the body, including:

  • Increased heart rate (200 to 300 beats per minute) and increased blood pressure, which may cause fainting; and the body may constrict itself into a fetal position in preparation for a coma.
  • Dilation of the bronchial passages, permitting higher absorption of oxygen.
  • Dilated pupils to allow more light to enter.
  • Visual exclusion (tunnel vision) occurs, allowing greater focus but resulting in the loss of peripheral vision.
  • Release of glucose into the bloodstream, generating extra energy by raising the blood sugar level.
  • Auditory exclusion, or enhancement, of hearing.
  • Increased pain tolerance.
  • Loss of color vision.
  • Short-term memory loss.
  • Trembling.
  • Dizziness.
  • Nausea.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Tingling sensations.
  • Urge to urinate and defecate.
  • Decreased fine motor skills.
  • Decreased communication skills.
  • Decreased coordination.

The distorted perception of time, as well as the partial color blindness and tunnel vision, cause people to have serious misinterpretations of their surroundings, causing them to take seemingly inappropriate actions. Temporary paralysis may occur, momentarily causing you to freeze as your body desperately tries to catch up to the sudden awareness that your life is in danger. The severe lack of adrenaline after an event may mimic post-traumatic stress disorder, where people may appear extremely emotional and overly tired, regardless of their actual physical exertion.

Loss of Martial Art SkillsEdit

Some of the effects of an adrenaline dump are:

  • Sudden surge in muscle strength.
  • Increase in speed of movement due to the increased strength.
  • Insensitivity to pain.
  • You will become super strong, very quick, and super alert

However, these feelings will be a foreign feeling to you, making your actions clumsy and your timing will be off. In addition, there will be a dramatic loss of fine motor coordination. Any self-defense movements that require precise movement probably will not work for you, such as grabbing the thumbs of the attacker or performing some intricate wristlock. For those who carry a firearm, fast drawing, aiming, and reloading will become difficult to perform.

No matter how realistic your martial art training may be, you never train under the condition of sheer terror. Therefore, do not fool yourself into thinking you will react any differently than any other human would react to a terrifying event.

Impaired ThinkingEdit

Under fight-or-flight conditions, your ability to think rationally and creatively will likely be reduced or even blocked, which will have a deleterious effect on your ability to choose the correct self-defense response and determine such things as what should be the appropriate use of force. This impaired thinking will be prevalent when your initial actions do not work as planned and you must improvise or take another action. The more complex the self-defense moves you have trained to use, the more likely that you will bungle them.


Some fight-or-flight effects on the body include tunnel vision and auditory exclusion, also known as "tunnel hearing." These effects not only can affect your ability to react properly to the threat, they may cause you to harm innocent bystanders or yourself.

I had a shiba inu dog. Shibas are extremely good hunters. If a shiba sees a rabbit, it will pursue the rabbit until it catches the rabbit. The sihiba will not response to anything during its pursuit, not matter how well trained. It sees and hears on one thing, the rabbit. One problem is that the shiba will run into traffic or over a cliff if the rabbit does the same; this can be a problem for the shiba, and the owner. Once the human body is set up to run or fight, its only concern is dealing with the threat, either by escaping or by eliminating the threat. We still see and hear everything around us, but it does not matter, the cortex of the brain screens out anything that does not pertain to the threat and we do not react to it.

With tunnel vision, you lose your peripheral vision and depth perception, you only see that which is directly in front of you and you may not see what else lurks behind the foremost threat or any other threats on your flanks. Another problem is that you lose sight of your own arms and hands, which can mean that they may not be where you expect them to be when you take an action. If the attacker has a weapon, you may fixate on the weapon, and not see any other threats.

Along with tunnel vision comes tunnel hearing. The hearing is directed at the threat and any other sounds seem muffled and distant. You may not hear shouts that warn of danger, or such things as the commands of responding police officers.

Shut DownEdit

For those who have never faced mortal fear before, hysterical or temporary blindness, amaurosis fugax, may occur. This is sort of a visual "whiteout" that occurs because the mind has seen something so terrifying that it refuses to look at it any longer.

People may also experience a denial response, a feeling that this terrible thing cannot really be happening. This may cause a state of fugue, where the person appears to be in a zombie-like state. Sometimes the person feels disconnected from events, even from the things he or she is doing. The person may feel he or she is watching the entire scene from a distance.

How to Deal with ItEdit

Soldiers and martial artists use a technique called conditioned response, combat breathing, cycle breathing, or autogenic breathing to manage the "adrenaline dump" that occurs after an event to increase their performance during stressful situations. It involves breathing in through the nose to a count of four, holding the breath for a count of four, exhaling through the mouth for a count of four, and holding that for a count of four, and then repeating the four part cycle, breathing deeply and methodically, and filling and emptying the lungs completely with each inhale and exhale.

All of this means you cannot count on some complex self-defense system to help you when you need it most. Complex moves may work when controlling a person not intent on killing you, such as an unruly drunk or a mentally ill person, and they may possibly work in a life or death situation if you are able to overcome the effects of your fight-or-flight response. Weak, complicated sport sparring techniques may be awkward and ineffective when you are in fear of your life. To be more certain of how you will perform under these circumstances, you should learn simple, basic, powerful, and potentially deadly techniques that do not require a lot of thought and are easy to execute.


When in a stressful situations, people develop tunnel vision where they tend to see only what is directly in front of them; this is called tunnel vision. In combat, this is dangerous. You must learn to defocus the eyes, not stare at one object, and be aware of all surroundings. To deceive the opponent, it is better not to look directly at the target, but to use your peripheral vision. Squinting helps reduce the field of vision to that of just the opponent. Also, movement is detected more quickly with peripheral vision than with direct vision, so it is best not to watch the opponent directly. Another technique is to look directly into the opponent's eyes but to look beyond the eyes so it seems as if you are ignoring the opponent. Miyamoto Musashi, Japan's most famous swordsman, stated the following in his Book of the Five Circles (Gorin-no-sho). '"From ancient times we have been taught many ways to direct the eyes, but the one used at present is to look at the opponent's face, to narrow the eyes more than usual, and to maintain a calm gaze. The eyeballs must not move and should see a nearby opponent as if he were slightly in the distance. Such a gaze permits one to observe the opponent's techniques, of course, and also allows one to see what is happening on both sides of one's body. The soldier must always see distant things as if they were close at hand and nearby things as if they were distant. He must know about his opponent's sword without actually looking at it."'A calm, cool, penetrating stare that seems to plumb the depths of the soul awakens feelings of insecurity and discomfort in the opponent and disturbs his or her concentration. This technique also works for the opponent, so if you feel you cannot beat your opponent in a staring contest, it is best not to try.


A 1999 study by Williams and Elliott, Anxiety, expertise, and visual search strategy in karate, found that when visually scanning an opponent for movement, the most efficient pattern is one with fewer fixations of longer durations. Expert fighters fixed their gaze on opponent’s head and central body, while using peripheral scanning the hands and feet. The anxiety of competition tends to cause an increase in search rate and an increase in the amount of time spent fixating on the periphery. It causes a decrease in viewing time overall and an increase in response accuracy. Under anxiety conditions, novices reduced fixation duration whereas experts increased the length of fixation duration. Novices also increased the number of fixations and the number of fixation locations

A 1999 study by Williams and Grant, Training perceptual skill in sport, found that elite athletes do not have superior visual ability and that training vision does not improve sports performance. However, skilled athletes do:

  • Have better perceptual skills and are more capable of selectively attending to, recognizing, analyzing, and interpreting incoming visual information.
  • May recognize and recall playing patterns more quickly and accurately.
  • Are better at anticipating their opponent’s behaviors through efficient visual search strategies.
  • Are more accurate in their expectations of their opponent’s reactions.

The study also found that that perceptual abilities may be trained by using simulation, such as watching videos from the competitor’s perspective, stopping the video prior to critical interactions, and having the viewer predict the reaction or have the viewer react physically based on the prediction.

Vital AreasEdit

As a student of Taekwondo, you should know some basic anatomy. In a simple self-defense situation, you need to know areas of the body to strike to cause painful results. In a life-or-death self-defense situation, you need to know areas of the body to strike to cause lethal results. Confusing the two situations may lead to serious consequences. Using too strong an attack in a simple attack may lead to your imprisonment or a lawsuit. Using too weak an attack in a life-or-death situation may lead to your death or serious injury. In each self-defense situation, you must correctly judge the amount of force required and on what areas of the body to apply the force. When making this judgment, you must consider the affect of adrenaline, on both you and your attacker. Increased adrenaline decreases the effects of pain and gives you greater strength. Also, remember that persons under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs are less sensitive to pain. All this means that Taekwondo students should know where to strike and what the affects of a strike may be.

Defensive techniques and targets should be chosen with great care. They should be legal and ethical and usually should tend toward caution. As you gain Taekwondo experience, you will gain knowledge of the human body, its vital areas, and their relationship to self-defense techniques.

Vital areas along the arms and legs are easy to reach and damage from strikes is usually minor. Wrist and elbow locks are the most common targets, since most attackers try to grab you or strike you with their hands. However, be careful when applying joint-locks. Only apply the amount of force needed to neutralize the attack since joint-locks can be very damaging. The use of excessive force, even in self-defense, is illegal! If you are forced to dislocate a joint, never reset it on the scene. Nerve fibers and/or blood vessels could be pinched or severed. This type of first aid should only be performed by medical personnel under controlled conditions.

Shoulders, as well as hips, are ball-and-socket joints that have large range of movement but they may be injured if over extended. The shoulders are highly susceptible to separations. Shoulder dislocations occur more frequently than in any other joint of the body. Even in the well-conditioned body, only a small amount of force is necessary to dislocate the shoulder.

Elbows, as well as the knees, are hinge joints that move primarily in only one direction. They are more susceptible to locking by hyperextension and twisting techniques than are the wrists. If you apply enough force against their direction of movement, it will cause extreme pain or possible separation of the joint.

Wrists have a modified ball-and-socket joint. They are an important target of releases and come-a-longs. Although wrist locks are effective, they require years of practice to apply correctly. They must be learned to near perfection because they are so easily broken and countered, especially if the opponent is strong. Wrists may also be a target for strikes. A strike to a wrist may numb and paralyze the entire arm.

Fingers may be targets for either strikes or grabs where they are pulled painfully backward. A sharp strike to the fingers may make an opponent drop his or her weapon and may cripple the hand so it cannot be used it to continue an attack.

Should the situation be serious, or the assailant is under the influence of alcohol or drugs, targets on the legs become your primary targets. It is easy to damage the knee with a kick to the front or side. When the knee is damaged, whether your attacker is able to feel the pain or not, he or she will not be able to stand or follow you as you make your escape. A strike or kick to the muscles of the inner thigh will not only cause pain but may cause a cramp which would make the leg useless and bring your assailant down. A sharp strike to the unprotected shin bone or a stomp to the instep of the foot will be extremely painful and could easily hobble an assailant. A stomp to the Achilles tendon could possibly cripple an assailant. A kick to the calf could cause a painful cramp. A strike just above the knee and at the bottom of the thigh could tear the hamstring and cripple an assailant. These are all repairable injuries, but they will allow you opportunity to escape.


Coronal Suture

Line of juncture of the frontal bone and the parietal bones. Death may result from severe trauma to the cerebrum and disruptive stimulation of cranial nerves.

Frontal Fontanel

Region of head between forehead and the coronal suture that is exposed. On a newborn infant the area pulsates. Death may result from concussion and trauma to cranial nerves.


Includes suture of zygomatic (cheekbone) and frontal bone. Loss of consciousness may occur due to trauma to cranial nerves, resulting in loss of sensory and motor functions. Death may result from concussion and trauma to cranial nerves.

Circumorbital Region

Upper and lower parts of eye socket. Loss of consciousness may occur from cerebral trauma and resulting loss of nervous control.


Loss of consciousness may occur from severe trauma to cerebrum resulting in disruptive stimulation of cranial nerves and loss of sensory and motor functions.


Area at the base of nose between eyes. Loss of consciousness may result from severe trauma to cerebrum leading to disruptive stimulation of cranial nerves and loss of sensory and motor functions.

Intermaxillary Suture

Juncture of left and right upper jawbones below nose. Loss of consciousness may result from trauma to cranial nerves and loss of sensory and motor functions.

Torso FrontEdit

Supraclavicular Fossa

Front portion of the on either side, just above collar bone at the origin of lateral head of sternocleidomastoid muscle. May cause loss of consciousness due to trauma to artery located below collar bone and to sublingual nerve. May also cause shock and loss of motor functions.

Suprasternal Notch

Concavity on ventral surface of neck between sternum below and the hyoid bone above. May cause loss of consciousness due to blocking of windpipe.

Sternal Angle

Just below juncture of manubrium and sternum. May cause loss of consciousness due to trauma to heart, broncus and arteries supplying upper part of body, and trauma to pulmonary artery, leading to malfunction of respiratory system and shock.

Xiphoid Process

Lowest part of sternum. May cause loss of consciousness due to severe trauma to liver, stomach and heart, leading to shock and to disturbance of nervous system and loss of motor functions.

Solar Plexus

Concavity just below sternum. May cause loss of consciousness due to trauma to stomach and liver, leading to damage to adjacent regions above and below, which may affect the nerves that control function of other internal organs.


Point about one inch below naval. May cause loss of consciousness due to trauma to small iintestine and bladder and may affect large blood vessels and nerves in the abdomen, which may cause shock and loss of motor functions.

Torso BackEdit

Middle Scapular Ridge

Level of third intercostal space. May cause loss of consciousness due to trauma to lungs and spinal cord, which may cause difficulty in breathing and blood circulation, and loss of motor function.

Space Between Fifth and Sixth Thoracic Vertebrae

May cause loss of consciousness due to trauma to the spinal cord, aorta, heart and lungs, leading to loss of sensory and motor functions that may stop breathing.

Lumbar Region

Left and right sides of the ninth and eleventh thoracic vertebrae. The two sides of the eleventh thoracic vertebrae are the more effective points for attack. May cause loss of consciousness due to trauma to the kidneys and associated nerves and blood vessels, which may lead to shock and loss of motor function.

Tip of Spine

May cause loss of consciousness due to trauma to entire spinal cord, which may lead to cerebral trauma and loss of sensory and motor function.

Gluteal Fold

The central portion of the back of the upper thigh just below the Buttock. The cause of the loss of consciousness is trauma to the Sciatic Nerve that produces an unusual type of pain in the Abdomen and Hip regions, also the loss of motor functions.

Lower Part of Soleus Muscle

May cause loss of consciousness due to trauma to the tibal artery and tibal nerve, which produces an unusual type of pain in the abdominal and hip regions which may cause loss of motor functions.


Upper Dorsal Surface of Arm

Middle part between the bicep and triceps. May cause loss of consciousness due to trauma to the ulnar and median nerves and blood vessels of upper arm. This may produce an unusual type of pain in chest and neck and that may lead to loss of motor functions.

Lateral Surface of Elbow

May cause loss of consciousness due to trauma to the ulnar nerve producing an unusual type of pain in chest and neck and may cause loss of motor functions.

Dorsal Surface of Wrist

Space between ends of radius and ulna. May cause loss of consciousness due to trauma to median nerve and loss of motor functions.

Inside Wrist

Between brachioradilis and flexor muscles of the fingers. An attack to this point produces trauma to underlying nerve and artery, which may cause an unusual type of pain that affects chest and throat regions and may cause loss of motor functions and loss of consciousness.

Back of Hand

Especially the points between thumb and the index finger. Also points between middle and ring finger. May cause loss of consciousness due to shock to the median nerve leading to an unusual type of pain in chest and throat regions that may produce a loss of motor function. A similar result may be expected from striking any of the bones located on back of hand.


Inguinal Region

Inner region of upper thigh; part of the musculature of the pubic bones. May cause loss of consciousness due to trauma to underlying artery and nerve, as well as to the closing nerve, causing an unusual type of pain in the hip and aabdomen that produces loss of motor function.

Lateral Lower Thigh

Middle part of Lateral vastus muscle. May cause loss of consciousness due to cramping of the muscle in the thigh, leading to pain in the lower abdomen and loss of motor function in leg.

Medial malleous

Point just below medialtuberosity of the tibia. This term usually indicates the inside surface of ankle. An attack will be to used to the medial surface of the tarsal bone just below ankle. May cause loss of consciousness due to trauma to tibial artery, causing an unusual type of pain in the hip area that may lead to loss of motor function.

Top, Lateral Part of Foot

Just below heads of the fourth and fifth metatarsals. May cause loss of consciousness due to trauma to tibial artery, causing an unusual type of pain in the hip area that may lead to loss of motor function.

Middle of Fibula

An attack to this point produces trauma to the fibular nerve, causing severe pain and loss of upright posture.



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